Under the Constitution of 1791, France was a Constitutional Monarchy. but It was independently published in the magazine The Friend on October 26, 1809, edited by Coleridge. He also had the power to choose ministers. The Directors ignored elections that did not go the way they wanted. The people revolted against the cruel regime of monarchy. The French Revolution was a watershed event in human history which lasted for around a decade from 5th May 1789 to 9th November 1799.Caused primarily due to a financial crisis, it began with the Storming of the Bastille and ended with the Coup of 18th Brumaire. The revolutionaries were very angry and violent. They could see that the American Revolution had created a country in which the people had power, instead of a king. The upper house, the senate, had 250 members and was called the Conseil des Anciens (Council of Elders). Not only were centuries of law, tradition, and practice wiped away by a revolution few people had been able to predict going this far, but warfare spread the revolution across Europe, changing the continent permanently. All the Church’s property was taken over by the state. Palace of Louis XIV; created financial issues; allowed nobles to live there so they would behave. The Declaration was taken very seriously among the revolutionaries. On June 20, they took the Tennis Court Oath, where they promised to work until they had created a new constitution for France. After that date, the Legislative Assembly would take over. The country was being invaded by the Prussian Army. No single group was controlling Paris or France. In July, they became angrier when Charlotte Corday, a Girondin, killed Jean-Paul Marat, a Jacobin. On 27 September 1794, the constitution came into effect. Soon, the King visited Paris and wore the red, white and blue (tricolor) ribbons (cockade) that the revolutionaries were wearing. This continued the reforms but it created divisions in France by legislating against the church and declaring war on nations which supported the French king. The French Revolution has often been called the start of the modern world, and while this is an exaggeration—many of the supposed "revolutionary" developments had precursors—it was an epochal event that permanently changed the European mindset. The King shared his rule with the Legislative Assembly, but had the power to stop (veto) laws he did not like. NCERT Solutions for Social Science, Chapter 1 – The French Revolution Other than Exercise Questions, we have included Activity Questions and Answers too from NCERT Books to make students understand History subject for Class 9 well. However, artisans, peasants & women were denied entry to assembly. The royal family was brought back to Paris. Creative, Disastrous or Non-Existent?. Also: The Russian Revolution and Bolshevik Victory. Which most people kind of view as the beginning of the Revolution. The war with Austria and Prussia was causing the state to have money problems. According to records, 16,594 people were executed with the guillotine. Ans. The king would have to take an oath to the state. 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days. The National Assembly began to make lots of changes. UNIT 3 FRENCH REVOLUTION . This republic did not last, but France never returned to its old, unequal form of society. Recent French Revolutionary Historiography,” French Historical Studies 23, no. The French Revolution completely changed the social and political structure of France. They did not like the rules about the church in the Civil Constitution of the Church (1790) and new taxes put in place in 1793. In January 1793,the convention tried and executed Louis XVI on thegrounds of treason. However, the members of the Third Estate were angry. France’s money problems did not go away. Economic Cause: The economic condition of France formed another cause for the outbreak of the French Revolution. As such, there is a vast range of literature on the topic, much of it involving specific methodologies and approaches. Prussia invaded France on 1 August, 1792. Ans. They fought against Great Britain, Austria and several other monarchies that were extremely popular at the time. This revolution put forward the ideas of liberty, fraternity, and equality. There are also instances at the brink of Revolution and in the beginning that implied that there would be a violent element to this movement. It was the most powerful group in France. Negative Impact of the French Revolution. They happened because of the French Revolution. According to the principle each estate had one vote. Get The French Revolution, History Chapter Notes, Questions & Answers, Video Lessons, Practice Test and more for CBSE Class 10 at TopperLearning. Get The French Revolution, History Chapter Notes, Questions & Answers, Video Lessons, Practice Test and more for CBSE Class 10 at TopperLearning. Even though only a third of the members were there and most of them were Jacobins, they suspended the King from duty. Louis XVI, on 5 May 1789, called an assembly to pass proposals for new taxes. On 26 August, the National Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which was written by the nobleman Marquis de Lafayette. It is possible that up to 40,000 people died in prison or were killed during the Reign of Terror. The people revolted against the cruel regime of monarchy. The first 2 estates sent 300 representatives each, while 3 rd one has 600 members who were more prosperous & educated. However, there is still debate over whether the revolution permanently changed the social structures of France or whether they were only altered in the short term. It began on 14th of June 14th 1789 when the Bastille, a symbol of the power of the French monarchy, was stormed. SPECIFIC EVENTS LEADING TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. The King and Queen were taken prisoner. But, representatives from … YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... french revolution. Some areas, like Belgium and Switzerland, became client states of France with reforms similar to those of the revolution. General Bouille held the same views and wanted to help the king leave Paris. The French changed into a revolution in France and called the French Revolution, it happened from 1789 to 1799. Europe was also changed. 20, 1792, France started a war with Austria. The commander of the Bastille was killed in the armed fight and the prisoners were released. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. The most famous of these was the Jacobin Club, which had left-wing ideas. Nobles could no longer pass their titles to their children. France went from a largely "feudal" state under an absolutist monarch through the French Revolution to a republic which executed the king and then to an empire under Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of France; the revolution was over, the empire had begun. The Brunswick Manifesto had made many people suspicious of the king. But (with a few exceptions) they invariably characterize the rebellion in … Causes Explanation absolute government the King was a despot and ruled with absolute power anyone who criticized the government could be arrested and put into prison without trial . The supporters of the revolution loved the revolution strongly. The main causes of French revolution were due to worsen of economic system due to the spending of the monarchy, the shortage of food, the power of the monarchy. This republic did not last, but France never returned to its old, unequal form of society. On 10 June 1789, they started the National Assembly. Education Franchise × Contact Us. Because France needed money Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates-General in 1789. The government before the revolution was called the "Ancient (old) Regime". For more than two centuries after the French Revolution began, the guillotine remained a legal form of execution in France. The Estates-General had not met since 1614. The series of events started by the middle class shaken the upper classes. It caused the stop of the monarchy and plenty of wars. Wordsworth was a freedom-loving person. They agreed to make the king a figurehead, with very little power. ADVERTISEMENTS: Montesquieu outright rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the kings and he suggested that the king should be selected by the will of the people. So the French Revolution is also known as the ‘Bourgeoisie Revolution’. The president of the National Assembly at the time of the Tennis Court Oath, Jean-Sylvain Bailly, became mayor of the city. Originally answered: What is a summary of the French Revolution? Although the members of the Estates-General had only been elected for a year, the members of the Assembly had all taken the Tennis Court Oath. So just to understand kind of the environment in which this began, let's talk about what France was like in 1789. But the French Revolution was the first time that those type of principles really took foot in Europe and really overthrew a monarchy. The Terrorists were removed in a coup and a new constitution was drawn up which created, in 1795, a new legislative system run by a Directory of five men. The King used his veto to stop laws that would sentence émigrés to death. Up to 50 people were killed. The lower house, the parliament, had 500 members. For Study plan details. On 10 August 1792, the members of a revolutionary group called the Paris Commune attacked the Tuileries, where the King and Queen were living. The Legislative Assembly had almost no power. Educational article for students, schools, and teachers. The French Revolution was a period in France when the people overthrew the monarchy and took control of the government. Howard Brown has proposed a different explanation for the failure of the Directory regime: its inability to maintain civic order and its willingness to resort to extrajudicial measures to repress banditry and rural violence. They also wanted votes in the Estates-General to be more fair. The revolution began on 14th July, 1789 with the storming of the fortress-prison, the Bastille. He and his Revolutionary Tribunal had killed 1,300 people in six weeks. 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